However, there is an interest to move away from this and there are now many alternative solutions emerging. These include finely printed conductive meshes, layers of silver or copper that are highly transparent, organic transparent conductors and variations such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. These solutions are discussed in the recently updated IDTechEx report Transparent Conductive Films 2012-2022.
The commonly used options (excluding uses of transparent conductors that are not in displays, photovoltaics or touchscreens) with their market share today is shown in this table:
Source: IDTechEx -Transparent conductors based on nanosilver and PEDOT:PSS are getting a lot of interest, in addition to carbon nanotubes and graphene. There are also hybrid approaches - using nanosilver to print fine lines, filled with a transparent conductor such as PEDOT:PSS.
Most of the focus is on use as a transparent conductor for display, solar and touchscreen applications - representing the biggest need and opportunity. This figure shows our forecast and outlines the market segments covered in our analysis.
Transparent conductive film market 2012-2022 US$ millions:
Source: IDTechEx http://www.IDTechEx.com/TCF
In comparison to other types of transparent conductors ITO has a very competitive conductivity-transparency-ratio. However, an issue not only for ITO, but also many other types of TCF, is that they are not particularly flexible. Sputtered ITO and other TCO layers on plastic films are known to be brittle, and they crack upon a few percent strain.
As more and more flexible devices are required, the market for transparent conductive films increases. The trade-off between conductivity, transmittance, and flexibility is best met with materials other than the traditional conductive oxides, which are expected to get more expensive as in the case of ITO, and many companies and research institutes work on alternate technologies.
Flexible E-Reader and Touchscreens
The recent developments in the e-Reader market are a good example of the interest to move to flexible displays: While the first devices where